Definition of Stroke
Stroke is an acute neurologic deficit that is marked by a partial destruction of the brain. Stroke is caused by a blood vessel disorder of the brain, for example if the arterial blood vessels that drain blood to the brain are blocked, or if torn or leak. It occurs suddenly and can be the cause of death, so it is needed fast treatment.
Symptoms of stroke
Keep in mind the following stroke symptoms in order to take the right action:
- The speech of the patient is unclear or chaotic, there are even people who can not talk at all even though they look conscious.
- Eyes and mouth on one side of the patient’s face look down.
- The arms are paralysis during a stroke, so they were unable to lift one or even both arms
Type of stroke
Type of stroke when viewed from the cause is divided into two ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
- Ischemic Stroke
Ischemic stroke occurs when the blood supply stops due to blood clots. A prognosis results from a study in Korea stated that, 75.2% ischemic stroke suffered by men with a prevalence of hypertension, smoking and alcohol consumption. Based on the TOAST system, the composition is divided into 20.8% LAAS, 17.4% LAC, 18.1% CEI, 16.8% UDE and 26.8% ODE.
Immediate detection in the ‘Golden Period’ a few hours after a stroke is very important for the health of patients post-stroke. Ischemic stroke, due to blockage should be given blood-thinning medication to smooth the blockage in no more than 3 hours after stroke, while hemorragic stroke where bleeding must be done surgery to clean the blood from the brain. If it is late in handling, then the patient will suffer from more severe post-stroke.
- Hemorrhagic Stroke
Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when blood vessels supplying blood to the brain are ruptured. In a hemorragic stroke, blood vessels rupture thus blocking normal blood flow and blood seeping into an area of the brain and destroying it. Bleeding can occur in all parts of the brain such as caudate putamen; thalamus; hippocampus; frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex; hypothalamus; suprakiasmatic areas; cerebellum; punch; and midbrain. Almost 70 percent of cases of hemorrhagic stroke attack people with hypertension.
Hemorrhagic stroke is divided into intracerebral hemorrhage subtype (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), cerebral venous thrombosis, and spinal cord stroke. ICH is further divided into parenchymal hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction, and punctate hemorrhage.
There is also a TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) or a mild stroke. TIA occurs when blood supply to the brain has a momentary disturbance that usually begins with symptoms of dizziness, double vision, the body suddenly feels weak, and difficult to talk. Although only a moment, still must be handled seriously. Because this is usually a warning of a heavy stroke.
Diagnosis of Stroke
Strokes are generally diagnosed through physical signs, as well as through photo or brain imaging, is called Brain CT Scan. Brain imaging or CT Scan of the Brain is useful for determining whether a stroke is caused by a blocked artery or a ruptured blood vessel, the risk of an ischemic stroke, which part of the brain is affected, and how severe the stroke is.
Method of treatment of stroke
Stroke treatment depends on the type, ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Treatment is also adjusted to the area of the brain where a stroke occurs. In general, stroke is treated with drugs, including preventative medications to lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, and eliminate blood clotting. In some cases, surgery is needed to correct the damage caused by a hemorrhagic stroke or the removal of fat in the arteries.
Prevention of stroke
Stroke can be prevented through the application of a healthy lifestyle. The risk of stroke will be reduced if you eat healthy food, exercise regularly, do not smoke, and drink alcohol according to the dose. Trying to lower cholesterol levels and high blood pressure with drugs can also reduce the risk of stroke. In some people, drugs to prevent blood clots and medications to maintain normal blood sugar levels are also important to prevent stroke.